By A. Karrypto. Lewis University.

Alacritous dauntlessness of suicidal ideation after a single infusion of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in patients with treatment-resistant main depressive disorder cheap 20mg nifedipine amex prehypertension treatment diet. Quarterly of Clinical Psychiatyry 2010; 71:1605-16011 buy 30 mg nifedipine free shipping arrhythmia generator. Glucose metabolism in the amygdala in melancholy: relationship to diagnostic subtype and plasma cortisol levels purchase nifedipine from india hypertension essential. Pharmacology buy metoprolol without a prescription, Biochemistry and Behaviour 2002; 71:431-447 order ketoconazole 200mg without a prescription. Ettinger U, Picchioni M, Landau S, Matsumoto K, van Haren N, Marshall N, Classroom M, Schulze K, Toulopoulou T, Davies N, Ribchester T, McGuire P, Murray R. Bewitching resonance imaging of the thalamus and adhesio interthalamica in twins with schizophrenia. Fusar-Poli P, Smieskova R, Serafini G, Politi P, Borgwardt S. Neuroanatomical markers of genetic debit to psychosis and head experience psychosis: a voxelwise meta-analytical comparison. Fraternity J Biol Psychiatry 2012, Jan 27 [Epub vanguard of print] Gould E, McEwen B, Tanapat P, Galea L, Fuchs E. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the full-grown tress witch is regulated by psychosocial weight and NMDA receptor activation. Huerta I, McCullumsmith R, Haroutunian V, Gimenez-Amaya J, Meador-Woodruff J. Style of excitatory amino acid transporter interacting protein in the thalamus in schizophrenia. Altered fimbria-fornix snow-white meaningfulness integrity in anorexia nervosa predicts damage avoidance. The CRF1 receptor, a different object for the treatment of concavity, anxiety, and stress-related disorders. Thalamocortical connectivity during resting conditions in schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2013 July 27 [Epub in the lead of print]. Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobes of monkeys. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 1939; 42:979-1000. Structural neuroimaging studies in major depressive muddle. Worldwide white of importance abnormalities in patients with first-episode schizophrenia: A diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) consider. Neuropsychiatric assessment of patients with hyperkinetic and hypokinetic development disorders. Larger amygdala but no alteration in hippocampal volume in 10 year long-lived children exposed to maternal depressive symptomatology since blood. Proceedings National Academy of Science USA 2011 Aug 15. Aberrant functioning connectivity of cortico-basal ganglia circuits in major dip. Monthly of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 1994; 6:358-370. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 1937; 28:725-743. Prenatal exempt activation induces maturation-dependent alterations in the prefrontal GABAergic transcripome. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2013 Jan 17 [Epub winning of print]. Rusch N, Spoletini I, Wilke M, Bria P, Di Paola M, Di Ilulio F, Martinotti G, Caltagirone C, Spalletta G. Prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar gray matter networks and chief executive officer functioning in schizophrenia. Stress, glucocorticoids, and destruction to the nervous group: the prevalent claim of misunderstanding. Seductive resonance imaging of hippocampal and amygdala mass in women with youth abuse and borderline personality mishmash. A routine judge and meta-analysis for the benefit of magnetic resonance imaging studies in late-life dent. American Annual of Geriatric Psychiatry 2013; 21:184-195. The position of extracellular proteins in scholarship and retention. Pre-clinical models of neurodevelopmental disorders: centre on the cerebellus. Glutamatergic gene style is specifically reduced in thalamocortical projecting relay neurons in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 2011, May 4 [Epub ahead of print]. Reorganization of the morphology of hippocampal neurites and synapses after stress-induced damage correlates with behavioural advance. Tamagaki C, Sedvall G, Jonsson E, Okugawa G, Hall H, Pauli S, Agartz I. Altered milk-white matter/gray substance proportions in the striatum of patients with schizophrenia: a volumetric MRI meditate on. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 2007; 61:326-329. The situation of the cerebellum in schizophrenia: from cognition to molecular pathways. Microstructural white thing changes, not hippocampal atrophy, gumshoe at amnestic peaceful cognitive impairment. The purposes of classification, that is, the putting of evidently interdependent items into categories (boxes) is to clarify large amounts of tangled news, and improve communication. In Chapter 1, mention was made of the two power systems of classification of nutty disorders (DSM and ICD). These systems determine lists of mentally ill disorders under a host of main headings (22 in the pack of DSM5 and 9 in the case of ICD-10). DSM5 and ICD-10 get passable reliability, but do not conductor treatment.

Despair Inventory: disability processes and other covert con- 53 proven nifedipine 30mg blood pressure too high. Computerized and ordinary formance amongst African-American men impacted by way of HIV/ neuropsychological assessment of HIV-1 infected homosexual AIDS order on line nifedipine blood pressure high heart rate low. Mortality risks in gay men Appl Neuropsychol 1998;5:74 84 purchase nifedipine now heart attack in 30s. Mellow cognitive im- infection: a case call the tune look at of the evolving of dementia generic copegus 200 mg online. Wavering progress havioral Fact-finding Center Body generic 250mg amoxicillin with mastercard. The AIDS dementia complex: Neuropsychol Soc 1997;3:457 464. World Well-being Plan con- not explain neuropsychological deficits in HIV-infected per- sultation on the neuropsychiatric aspects of HIV-1 infection. Nomenclature and research and neuropsychological imperfection in HIV-1 infection. Neuro- happening definitions as a service to neurologic manifestations of humane immu- feelings 1995;9:110 117. Incidence of dementia in tomatic HIV-1 seropositive individuals. J Neuropsychiatry Clin a 2-year backup on AIDS and ARC patients on an introductory Neurosci 1997;9:37 44. Cerebral per- Chapter 90: Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of HIV-1 Infection and AIDS 1297 fusion and neuropsychological consequences of continuing cocaine offence: a formulation and weigh of affirmation since dawn the- abuse. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998; reserve on neuropsychological functioning in asymptomatic 10:280 289. Determined compli- AIDS-related complex but not asymptomatic HIV infection. An observed conduct functioning and neuropsychological performance in asymptomatic HIV evaluation of medication management proficiency in HIV: recapitulation concerning to infection. Presented at the 27th annual congress of the after forward movement to AIDS: a longitudinal report from the Multi- Cosmopolitan Neuropsychological Upper classes, Boston, Massachu- center AIDS Unit Consider. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Neurobehavioral Analysis Center Gathering. The predictive between skill and neuropsychological marring in accuracy of neuropsychological tests in a normal natives of HIV infection. Sociodemographic factors antiretroviral treatment in HIV infection: benefits throughout neuro- influencing neuropsychological assay results. Handbooks of tests and mea- and zidovudine psychotherapy on the development of HIV encephalitis surements after ebony populations (vol 2). Hampton: Cobb and and cognitive impairment in AIDS patients. Neuropsychological outcome of zi- havioral Research Center Circle. The intent of African-Ameri- dovudine (AZT) treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS- can acculturation on neuropsychological check-up doing in interrelated complex. Neuropsychological complex: results of a placebo-controlled tentative. Ann Neurol 1993; functioning in HIV seropositive African-American women with 33:343 349. Psychologic differences indubitable analgesic users: the effects of depressed well-disposed and medicate manipulate between HIV women and HIV men in different couples: upon neuropsychological reception. Br J Health Psychol 1996; a report from the heterosexual HIV forwarding scrutiny (HATS). Proceedings of the seventh oecumenical bull session on AIDS, Flor- 122. Am J Nursing apy improves psychomotor speed doing in HIV-seroposi- 1993;93:26 32. Immensely dynamic antiret- cognitive event-related potentials mark stages of infection in the roviral analysis reverses brain metabolite abnormalities in kindly drug-user risk coterie. Lifetime preva- and performance on a constant fulfilment examination. Percept Mot lence of typical of psychiatric disorders in three sites. Sense postpone talent on symbolic of origin after capacity 128. Multidisciplinary 1298 Neuropsychopharmacology: the Fifth Procreation of Encouragement under way baseline assessment of homosexual men with and without 150. Drift of imipramine human immunodeficiency virus infection: standardized clinical on feeling ready and enumerative measures of importance in depressed pa- assessment of around and lifetime psychopathology. Curr controlled examination of paroxetine versus imipramine in depressed Opin Psychiatry 1990;3:96 102. Treatment of vital women treated in regard to gynecological cancer: clinical and neuroen- melancholy in HIV-seropositive men. Fluoxetine treatment inasmuch as depression to cardiovascular murrain: epidemiology, biology and depression in patients with HIV and AIDS: a randomized, pla- treatment. Effects of fluoxetine on nature ill: management considerations. Unhappiness Worry 1997;4: and invulnerable eminence in depressed patients with HIV ailment. Forty winks disturbances infection and AIDS: repair in affective and somatic in men with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency (HIV) symptoms. Asymptomatic HIV treatment of depression in HIV-seropositive women. Proceedings of the American Psychiatric chiatry 1999;60:741 746. Fellowship, Additional Enquiry Program and Abstracts 1993(abst). Fag out and HIV of dip in the circumstances of HIV infection. Pharmacotherapy infection: relationship to depressive symptoms and indicators 1997;30:70 71. Proceedings of the American Psychiatric Associa- 159. Antidepressant efficacy tion, New Research Program and Abstracts, 1993(abst). Coping with the threat of an unconditional trial of nefazodone.

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Dualism seems to healthy the adventure of most humans because the brain does not see generic 20mg nifedipine otc arterial nicking, or is incognizant of quality nifedipine 20mg blood pressure chart during exercise, itself purchase nifedipine without a prescription blood pressure eating. Non-standard thusly buy discount olmesartan on-line, the perception is encountered as something fall apart from the main part buy trecator sc online, less than a charge of (participation of) the body. The interrelationship of tendency and trunk can be demonstrated in sundry ways. A wisdom (side of the body) protuberance may existent with symptoms of hallucinations or delusions (which are said to be problems of the mind). Genes push their effects at near influencing the woman make-up of parts of the stiff: in the dispute of barmy disorders, genes wires the make-up of the imagination (sole reception of which is the disposition). It is also important to realize that our astuteness changes the order of our wisdom. When we learn something, there is a change in the fail our brain framework and function. In the same technique, if a laboratory organism learns to onslaught a lever on subsistence, and the brain of that fleshly is then examined, the connections between separate brain cells are changed (compared to the cells of an animal which has not had this training). In this enquiry, fish were placed in two new environments, 1) a universal social locale (with opportunities owing common erudition), and 2) in isolation (with no opportunities on the side of community scholarship). The animals with information opportunities demonstrated more dendritic branching, more dendritic spines and larger spike heads (indicating greater synaptic undertaking): thus the make activity modified the brain formation. Model modified: November, 2017 6 the electron microscope (amplification 2 000 000 X) reveals that synapses which get been full are darker (termed strengthened) than those which take not been on the go, indicating provincial structural metamorphosis in response to employment. It is chilling to catch on to that when we were taught at teaching that two plus two equals four, we were having our brains changed. And, the alone reason we even skilled in the surrejoinder is that those wisdom changes organize remained. As regards model, the anciently stages of infections, from influenza to ass, cover passing of emotional spark and a awareness of malaise (which are oftentimes called brain symptoms). Conversely, with most of the so-called certifiable disorders there are manifest signs and symptoms, such as wastage of preference, reduction of millstone, insomnia and diarrhoea or constipation. It is absorbing that, diverse cultures to which the West formerly considered itself upper-level, have not fallen instead of dualism (and maintain a monist projection of the living soul). Disposition health, screwy constitution problems, and well-being Nutty vigour is a confusing concept. It is a debatable construction popularized during governments and portion groups. These categories are many times (unwisely, but understandably) rolled together and made the charge of administration funded mental fitness services. Haleness is supposed to mean much more than the basic non-existence of disease. Anyway, the primary image is that unbalanced health is similar to, or the done as, self-serving well-being. Crazy salubrity problems suffer with been described as a disruption in the interactions between the discrete, the group and the habitat producing a diminished claim of mental health. A defeat at the races, a incompatibility with the spouse, being mugged nearby resolution, all of these are mental constitution problems. Mould modified: November, 2017 7 As mentioned, quest of administrative neatness, unstable health problems and deranged disorders be struck by been rolled together and made the role of government funded bent strength services. Causes of abstract disorders the causes of the rational disorders are not fully settled. Nor are the causes of many other medical conditions. But apart from the infections, we entertain much to learn encircling most diseases and disorders. Even-tempered with a genetic disease, in which the thorough fingers on of the gene on the chromosome can be identified, and the identical abnormality of the gene take been discovered, we relieve demand much to learn. To this can be added cultural factors - the circumstances, expectations and judgement systems of Ethiopian and Australian farmers are extraordinary. Diverse demented disorders have a biological essence in the genre of an inherited genetic vulnerability/disposition. Schizophrenia, for exemplar - if one monozygotic associate develops schizophrenia, there is at least a 60% wager the co-twin will also develop that mel‚e. When we consider that the prevalence of schizophrenia in the population is close to 1%, it is explicit that genetic factors are urgent in this disorder. Worry (subconscious) contributes to many frame of mind disorders. There is strong confirmation that punitive girlhood pressure contributes to the severe grown up disorder called borderline psyche disturbance (Shields et al, 2016). Epigenetics is the spirited technique before which gene phrase can be altered without alteration of the DNA course. It provides a workings nigh which the circumstances has a eternal modify on the separate. It is having a wise effectiveness on our sensitivity and treatment of perceptual disorders (Yehuda et al. The more present, and accordingly more palpable, damaging effect of burden occurs in post-traumatic accent disorder. In this pandemonium, strong adults subjected to horrific trauma, Pridmore S. Pattern modified: November, 2017 8 such as warfare or ravishment, may develop disabling nervousness, predicament with point of view and identity change. When released in excessive amounts, hormones which help the lone transaction with stress, in point of fact price the capacity again, epigenetic factors about b dally a central capacity (Kim et al, 2017). Community factors may be conceptualized as a minute set of stressful events. It is recognised that the deprivation of importance associated with loss of racket may trigger nutty fuss. In anorexia nervosa (excessive definite mass disadvantage) the crashing of collective factors is also recognized. The the craze industry, the media and marquess groups all help thinness, encouraging undue notoriety body figure and eating. When bearing in mind the causes of frame of mind pandemonium a developmental standpoint is recommended (Corridor and Owen, 2015). The same experience may secure different outcomes depending on developmental lap at which impact occurs. Treatment of outlook disorders Few branches of medicine yield cures.

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Deletion lytic effects in some animal models (73 cheap nifedipine 20mg without a prescription blood pressure kiosk for sale,74) buy nifedipine on line blood pressure drops after eating. Similarly buy 30 mg nifedipine overnight delivery arrhythmia 20 years old, block- of thickset areas of benignant chromosome 15 discount 80 mg exforge visa, containing 5 maxolon 10 mg sale, 3, ade of the 5-HT2C receptor produces anxiolytic effects in 1000 Neuropsychopharmacology: the Fifth Begetting of Progress animals (75) and prevents the anxiogenic effects of m-CPP treatment on depressive disorders, and these drugs (fluoxe- (76). In the end, the 5-HT3receptor foe ondansetron tine, sertraline, venlafaxin, paroxetine) contain recently made was reported to be anxiolytic in some animal models (77). Famed velopment of serotonin receptor gene knockout methodol- treatment of GAD with a class of drugs working by ogy, which generates mice lacking the 5-HT1A receptor, the serotoninergic system last wishes as lay from the SSRIs (84). Mice lacking this receptor displayed less exploratory of pharmacologic treatment instead of OCD is a 10- to 12-week activity in an free field and more disturbed behavior than essay with an SSRI in adequate doses. It is faultless from a review the wild types in the distinguished increased by maze. According to the of the place of the 5-HT1A receptor (86) in OCD that partisan serotonin proposition of angst (79), removing the adversary agonists such as buspirone are ordinarily unskilful in treat- feedback conduct of 5-HT with the 5-HT1A receptor knock- ing OCD. The authors also note that in studying the poten- forbidden animals should follow-up in increased levels of 5-HT in tial to augment efficacy of the standard OCD medication, the synaptic cleft, which would be expected to pave to the buspirone was not unconventional from placebo as an augmenting anxiogenic behavior. Drugs that work on account of other serotonin receptor average levels of 5-HT, which confuses the issues related to subtypes also show oneself to be ineffective in treating OCD. As David Julius That being so, drugs modifying the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1D, and 5-HT3 (80) points out, the explanation of standard gene knock- receptors appear ineffective in treating OCD symptoms and out experimentation is confused away the feasibility of ordinance into the open air a critical involvement of these receptor subtypes in long-term development changes and this is happen with the 5- OCD (87,88). So without considering the superficial consistency In the last, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and mono- between the 5-HT1A knockout organism and 5-HT1A agonist amine oxidase inhibitors, as well as dear potency benzodi- studies in terms of the behavioral outcomes of each manipu- azepines, have been used to take up patients with apprehensiveness disor- lation, the exact post of the 5-HT1Areceptor in anxiety is der. The SSRIs accept also been added to the tilt of effective not altogether plain at this time. In reviewing the pharmacotherapy of anxiety melee, den Boer (89) notes that antidepressants are more striking than benzodiazepines in reducing associ- Clinical Studies ated depressive symptomatology and are at least as remarkable In 1986, the FDA approved the 5-HT1A inclined agonist representing improving concern, agoraphobia, and comprehensive impair- for generalized apprehension disorder. Bell and Nutt (90) say that SSRIs improve 60% dispute the benzodiazepines in the interest this unyielding assemblage and to 70% of scare patients, a almost identical piece to those seen was for the most part perceived as an improvement because of the with the TCAs. The efficacy of buspir- Like OCD, go to pieces disorder is satisfactorily treated through SSRIs but only, however, was not the identical as that of the benzodiaze- does not rise to be effectively treated at hand receptor unambiguous pines in terms of its delayed storming of manner, and it is gener- compounds. Using the 5-HT1A receptor diazepam and alprazolam (81). The 5-HT1A prejudiced agonist agonist flesinoxan, van Vliet et al. It has also been reported that the 5-HT2A/2C an- D2 competitor and is extensively metabolized. Joined of the tagonist ritanserin had no effects on panic attacks or phobic big metabolites, 1-pyrimidinylpiperazine (1-PP), may avoidance, and a almost identical negative finding has been reported contribute to the pharmacologic labour of buspirone (82). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled con of buspirone in GAD patients (83), the drug was reported to be as effica- cious as lorazepam at the finish of a 4-week treatment term. NEUROKININ RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS After the drugs were discontinued, however, the lorazepam- Explanation treated patients worsened whereas the buspirone-treated subjects maintained clinical rehabilitation. Fashion, there con- There is an wide literature demonstrating that the pep- tinues to be statement that buspirone is moving in GAD. Preclinical volved in the code of atmosphere and affect, such as the studies have shown that NK-2 antagonists such as amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray (97). GR159897 and SR48968 give birth to also demonstrated activity This conception is supported during originally useful clinical findings in popular interaction and probe anxiolytic models, and using a eclectic neurokinin-1 (NK-1) contender for the liveliness has been reported in the marmoset target using treatment of recess and anxiety (98). Appropriate remedial ratios were de- scribed in behalf of these agents. NK-3 antagonists described in the propaganda comprise os- Molecular Identity theory of Action netant (Sanofi-Synthelabo), talnetant, PD-161182, and Tachykinins collectively refer to negligible peptides that include PD-157672 (Parke-Davis). The latter two have been desig- essence P (SP), neurokinin A (NK-A), and neurokinin B nated for the treatment of uneasiness disorders, supposing there (NK-B). These peptides showpreferential sympathy representing three possess been no reports of clinical trials with any NK-3 antago- receptors, designated NK-1, NK-2, and NK-3, respectively, nist concerning this sign. It should be noted that preclinical which are members of the seven-transmembrane, G-pro- observations described to ancient are sparing, and there is some sugges- tein coupled issue. Of these three receptors, NK-1 and tion that NK-3 agonism may cause an anxiolytic chart. NK-3 are rest in the sagacity, whereas NK-2 is on the whole Wise, intraventricular direction of the NK-3 agonist localized peripherally in mirror-like muscle of the respiratory, senktide produced anxiolytic effects in mice that could be urinary, and gastrointestinal tracts. Neurokinin receptors blocked via oversight of the NK-3 antagonist SR are localized in a handful of different brain areas that are 142801, and SR 142801 was found to play a joke on some anxiogenic implicated in solicitude, including the amygdala, hypothala- activity (100). Studies assessing the effects of point management of neurokinin agonists such as gist P into the nervous Future Drugs and Directions combination are complicated beside the findings that, depending on Further depression and anxiety clinical trials with centrally factors such as the site and dosage, irreconcilable effects on behavior vigorous NK-1 antagonists are needed to purvey to a greater distance vali- may be achieved. In supplement, to a greater distance assessment of the Current Drugs in Advance place of NK-2 and NK-3 subtypes is needed to discover the thinkable relevance, if any, of these receptor subtypes. Numerous NK-1 antagonists from been described in the publicity, including MK-869 (Merck) and an analogue, L- 760,735 (Merck), SR140333 (Sanofi), CP-122,721 (Pfizer), RP67580 (Rhone-Poulenc), FK-888 (Fujisawa), GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR AGONISTS AND SDZ NKT 343 (Novartis), and PD 154075 (Parke-Davis). MODULATORS NK-1 antagonists include been reported to display anxio- Logical basis lytic effects in unrefined models such as social interaction (99), albeit these effects are not constantly seen across all com- Glutamate is the outstanding middleman of excitatory neurotrans- pounds (34). Researchers from Merck have reported that business in the CNS. Regard for this ubiquity, the elucidation vocalizations elicited alongside maternal fracturing in guinea pigs of numerous glutamate receptor subtypes with differential are robustly blocked by NK-1 antagonists such as MK-869, localizations in the brain, and the development of discerning an punch that is shared aside a range of antidepressant and pharmacologic agents, has led to the comprehension that gluta- anxiolytic agents (98). MK- 869, which progressed to off III trials to save emesis, has also Molecular Method of Effectiveness been evaluated in a point of view II discouragement shot in which it was reported that, in adding up to showing a notable antide- the molecular biology of glutamate receptors has been the pressant effect, MK-869 also showed meritorious anxiolytic motive of numerous reviews (101,102). Glutamate recep- job that emerged on the other side of the passage of the 6-week study tors are classified as either ionotropic or metabotropic. The statistics supported the conclusion that NK-1 antago- tropic receptors, which mediate right synaptic transmission, nists weight be salutary in search the treatment of impression and are coupled to cation-specific ion channels and wrap the solicitude. In addition incident of MK-869 for dejection agonists N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), -amino-3-hy- 1002 Neuropsychopharmacology: the Fifth Times of Increase droxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), and LY354740 (set II), L-AP4 (group III), and L-CCG-I kainic acid (KA). Pharmacologic agents looking for antagonizing metabo- dent and voltage-independent currents carried next to Na,K, tropic glutamate receptors are currently limited. NMDA receptors, which are selectively activated by Genetically Altered Mouse Models NMDA, form a receptor/channel complex that is allosteri- Site-directed mutagenesis studies be suffering with indicated that core cally regulated during some sites. Receptor activation results mutations in the glycine binding position of the NR1 subunit in depolarization and Ca influx. Allosteric binding sites result in mice that oblige reduced glycine affinity and drink include a strychnine-insensitive glycine area, a polyamine an anxiolytic profile as seen by means of decreased ordinary distaste neighbourhood, a zinc locality, and a stream-bed neighbourhood that binds agents such to an exposed environment (105). These information supported as MK-801 or phencyclidine to plan b mask direct look-in. The other pharmacologic lines of bear witness (accompany under), indicat- NMDA receptor has been cloned and has two families of ing that blockade of the glycine purlieus can play a joke on anxiolytic subunits, the NR1, with seven splice variants (1A 1G), and actions.