By P. Ashton. East Carolina University.
Tolerability and adverse events Atypical antipsychotic drugs be undergoing differing adverse event profiles generic 100 mcg albuterol overnight delivery asthmatic bronchitis elderly, both in short- and long-term discount 100 mcg albuterol with mastercard asthma definition 99202. Adverse events that may lead to mortality or poker-faced morbidity are discussed across disease populations in the segment titled Pressing Harms purchase albuterol 100 mcg on line asthma 4x4x4. In this component discount 5 mg escitalopram mastercard, adverse events that couple to the tolerability of the drugs are discussed object of the populace of patients with schizophrenia generic cyproheptadine 4mg overnight delivery. The adverse events reported here are the total rating of withdrawal from studies due to adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, voluptuous side effects, influence gain, serum lipids, and metabolic syndrome. Discontinuations from studies straight membership fee to adverse events Adverse events that are intolerable dispose to discontinuation from studies, although some may leave longer to result in discontinuation. The CATIE trials included these discontinuations as a inessential outcome measure and organize statistically weighty differences develop into the drugs. In CATIE Phase 1, discontinuations due to adverse events were highest magnitude patients delightful olanzapine (principally due to weight make or other metabolic effects, 18%) and lowest among those taking risperidone (10%; P=0. Measure to discontinuation pro adverse events did not part company develop into the groups. In Phases 1B, 2T, and 2E, differences were not seen between groups after speed of discontinuations or obsolescent to discontinuation due to adverse events (intolerability). Text from discontinuation rates from 64 head-to-head trials were worn in a mixed- treatment comparisons judgement (also known as a network meta-analysis; Comestible 10). This assay used honest and zigzag comparisons based on the head-to-head trials and found that clozapine resulted in discontinuation well-earned to adverse events statistically significantly more again than olanzapine, immediate-release quetiapine, or risperidone. This analysis controlled for between writing-room heterogeneity and dosage invariable within chew over (ill-bred, middle, or great) past using the fixed- Atypical antipsychotic drugs Episode 65 of 230 Terminal Explore Update 3 Psychedelic Effectiveness Scrutinize Commitment effects maquette. It did not control over the extent of within contemplate heterogeneity for those studies where there were more than 2 antidepressant arms. As noted previously, prescribe comparisons comprise been an consequence in this subside of studies, with prematurely studies using doses that are not considered clinically optimal now. For example, inappropriate studies of risperidone time employed doses decidedly overhead those euphemistic pre-owned today and clozapine and olanzapine studies used doses nautical below-decks those reach-me-down today. In stratified sympathy analysis (studies of greater than 6 months in duration) the findings were no longer statistically significant, although the details estimates were in the word-for-word managing was the blanket analysis. This is most indubitably scheduled to the moderate number of studies in each stratified analysis. There are fewer evidence readily obtainable in the service of the newer drugs, particularly iloperidone, asenapine, and paliperidone long-acting injection. Hence, results suitable these drugs should be interpreted with alertness. Atypical antipsychotic drugs Call for 66 of 230 Fixed Description Update 3 Drug Effectiveness Study Assignment a Eatables 10. Mixed-treatment effects model: Rates of discontinuation in arrears to adverse events Aripiprazole Asenapine Clozapine Iloperidone Olanzapine Quetiapine Paliperidone Risperidone Ziprasidone 0. Atypical antipsychotic drugs After 67 of 230 End Communication Update 3 Tranquillizer Effectiveness Evaluate Assignment Because the 3 of 4 short-term trials of iloperidone were published in an revealing frame and because the lower-dose studies did not state predominance over placebo in efficacy, there was unusually little statistics elbow to determine comparative harms with iloperidone. A pooled analysis of 3 unpublished 6-week studies indicated that the percentage of patients discontinuing enough to adverse events was highest in the risperidone union (6. Similar results were found in a retreat including 94 ziprasidone: iloperidone (5%, 24 mg quotidian), ziprasidone (8%, 160 mg everyday), and placebo (8%), and in a pooled enquiry of 3 longer-term trials (3. Extrapyramidal symptoms 60 In CATIE Insinuate 1, differences were not develop between olanzapine, immediate-release quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone in the quantity of extrapyramidal symptoms identified as an adverse incident, or akathisia or movement disorders based on rating scales. Similarly, 77 64 differences were not bring about between drugs in the in the wake CATIE Configuration 1B, Facet 2E, or 78 Juncture 2T, or in another inquiry with multiple drugs (aripiprazole, olanzapine, immediate-release 62 quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone). In a more detailed assay of only treatment- emergent extrapyramidal symptoms mass patients in CATIE, differences in frequency or severity between the atypical antipsychotic drugs were not establish based on rating scales for the sake 304 parkinsonism, dystonia, akathisia, or tardive dyskinesia. The utter of antiparkinsonism medications was greater with risperidone and lower with immediate-release quetiapine (P=0. In a 52-week venture of olanzapine, immediate-release quetiapine, and risperidone in patients with primeval psychosis (median duration of illness 6. This study did happen statistically significantly more patients taking olanzapine requiring anticholinergic medication for the sake of extrapyramidal symptoms compared with immediate- unloose quetiapine (4% compared with 11%; P=0. Observations or analysis for comparison on immediate-release quetiapine and risperidone were not reported. A look of patients with crucial schizophrenia, conducted in the inpatient environment upon 3 weeks, inaugurate no statistically important difference in warning sign scores all of a add up to aripiprazole, haloperidol, olanzapine, immediate-release 62 quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone. This about reported that 30% of patients entrancing risperidone and 10% captivating immediate-release quetiapine or ziprasidone required anticholinergic medication seeking extrapyramidal symptoms, while no tenacious bewitching aripiprazole or olanzapine did. In head-to-head trials comparing exclusively 2 drugs, differences were not institute between 55, 76, 83 olanzapine and immediate-release quetiapine in 3 studies, clozapine and olanzapine in 5 28, 68, 82, 104, 305 38, 65, 99 studies, or olanzapine and aripiprazole in 2 studies. In most cases, some balance of patients entering the trials had pre-existing extrapyramidal symptoms, such that measures were actually improvements from baseline. Hugely two trials were unambiguous give measuring new-onset extrapyramidal symptoms as a treatment-emergent adverse event. With a view all other comparisons made in head-to-head trials, at least some differences were base. Of 10 studies of olanzapine and risperidone (2223 patients entire) reporting extrapyramidal 41, 47, 50, 52, 53, 59, earmark adverse experience matter, 8 institute no relevant differences between the drugs 82, 306 while 2 (586 patients absolute) start risperidone to father higher rates or worsening symptoms Atypical antipsychotic drugs Summon forth 68 of 230 Certain Discharge Update 3 Medicament Effectiveness Review Project of extrapyramidal symptoms on measures reflecting akathisia, dyskinesia, dystonia, 80, 307 pseudoparkinsonism, and inclusive extrapyramidal symptoms. At any cost doses of risperidone 5 and 7 mg were compared with olanzapine 13 and 17 mg of olanzapine, mutatis mutandis. Across these studies, mass and nobility ratings were like. One good-quality, short-term nuisance (N=377) was statistically powered to verify a difference in extrapyramidal adverse experience reports and organize no significant differences between the groups on this extent or on Extrapyramidal 41 Token Rating Hierarchy (ESRS) scores or use of anticholinergic medications. In this trial the aid of measure of olanzapine was under midrange, while the using dose of risperidone was mean the 23 midpoint (5 mg). The other good-quality shot initiate treatment-emergent and worsening pre- existing extrapyramidal symptoms in 28. Dosing in this analyse also had olanzapine somewhat lower midrange and risperidone within midrange. A 13-week on of risperidone long-acting injection compared with olanzapine create statistically significantly higher rates of extrapyramidal symptoms with risperidone (25% 53 compared with 15%; P<0. Rates of discontinuation due to these adverse events were not distinct between the groups. Prescriptions representing antiparkinson drugs entranced during the from the word go 90 days of atypical antipsychotic waste were analyzed using a Cox symmetrical hazards dummy adjusting 308 for the treatment of latent confounders. The analysis compared olanzapine and risperidone to haloperidol.
Detection 100 mcg albuterol with visa asthma symptoms of, isolation and unbroken development of cytopathic retro- viruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS discount albuterol 100 mcg otc asthma phenotypes definition. Acquired immunodeficiency-like syndrome in two haemophiliacs order 100mcg albuterol amex asthma hospitalization. Routine T-cell subset ratios in patients with oppressive haemophilia A treated with cryoprecipitate purchase 35 mg residronate with amex. Changes in the spectrum of AIDS-defining conditions and easing off in CD4+ lymphocyte counts at AIDS exhibition in Germany from 1986 to 1991 generic gabapentin 100 mg. Tyrannical acquired immunodeficiency in manly homosexuals manifested close to inveterate perianal ulcerated herpes simplex lesions. Predicting clinical ascension or termination in subjects with early-stage HIV infection: a comparative inquiry of quantification of HIV RNA, soluble tumor necrosis deputy strain II receptors, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin. Is carrying of HIV-I in non-viraemic serodiscordant couples possi- ble? HIV-infizierte Menschen ohne andere STD sind unter wirksamer antiretroviraler Therapie sexuell nicht infektiГ¶s. Mastermind statement of wide-ranging individuality of HIV-1 in Kinshasa past 1960. Consideration extensive testing possibilities and recommendations, HIV infection continues to be diagnosed at till stages. According to the 2014 announcement from the European Mid-point for Plague Prevention and Control (ECDC), 47% and 27% of HIV+ patients presented with a CD4 T apartment figure up beneath 350/Вµl and 200/Вµl at the time of incipient diagnosis. In Germany, the company of patients incognizant of their unquestionable HIV standing is estimated at 14,000 (RKI 2014). There are several indications and reasons on the side of HIV testing. Every eloquent mistress should be offered an HIV check up on to preclude mother-to-child despatch. HIV testing also plays an top-level security lines in blood and device contribution. HIV testing is also indicated in example in any event of symptoms compatible with an critical antiretroviral syndrome, in state of accuse with diseases (viva voce thrush, OHL, etc) or an AIDS-defining illness, as cooked through as after occupational or non-occupational exposure to HIV. The basics of HIV diagnostics the laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection is originally based on a serologic screening investigation. A reactive result has to be confirmed by a confirmatory exam. Due to its less high irritability, the 4th times examination (Combo test) that simultaneously detects both HIV-specific antibodies and p24 antigen should be occupied (Bust 2000, Weber 2002, Sickinger, 2004, Skidmore 2009, Bentsen 2011). Any approved screening investigation detects all known HIV types (HIV-1 and -2), HIV groups and HIV subtypes. In any event, the basic technological standard is the same for all and is based on antigen-antibody binding. The example assay is the ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay). Its principal element is a meretricious lamina with 96 wells (microtiter serving). The face of each space is coupled with HIV antigens and HIV antibodies. An enzyme-labelled second antibody is then added, which recognizes and binds to kind-hearted antibodies. Irrevocably a substrate is added that is converted by the enzyme at the later antibody. The culminate is a color variety, unhurried photometri- cally. The optical density correlates with the HIV antibody concentration in the test of the submissive the higher the vigour, the more antibodies submit in the test. Based on this prototype various advances have improved the skilfulness and effec- tiveness of the screening try out (Perry 2008). In these systems, the true work in consists of microparticles coupled with the virus antigens and antibodies. Commensurate with explain, the method is referred to as a microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA). The reasoned value is usually an guide without dimensions, calculated from the ratio of the measured value of the resigned swatch and the negative curb (Sample/Control, S/Co). Values under 1 are considered dissentious, values out of reach of 1 as reactive. It should every be called reactive and not a positive sequel to docu- ment that this development needs to be confirmed by a back proof. With the screening test, tenderness has the highest seniority (this progress, no infection should be missed), while a sybaritic specificity is preferred as a replacement for the confirmatory analysis. Screening tests approved in Germany make a specificity of 99. That means that 16 the Basics one in 200 HIV-negative samples could deliver a false-reactive proof result. False-reac- tive results are caused after example on stimulation of the insusceptible set-up. To establish a reactive screening check up on a Western Blot (immunoblot) judgement is typically carried inoperative. Viral proteins (antigens) are separated by means of their molecular albatross via electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, which is then familiar as a check-up work the runway. An assist in terms of standardization is the suspect tailback blotch produced through spraying recombinant HIV antigens undeviatingly onto a evaluate membrane. The test swath is incubated with the serum or plasma. If HIV-specific antibodies are remaining, they jam to the antigen. Analogous to the ELISA the resulting antigen-antibody complex thinks fitting behoove discoverable on the assay strip using an enzyme-labeled next antibody and a correspon- ding substrate. According to the antibody specificities a corresponding confederate spectrum occurs on the assay strip. In a perfect world, the laboratory drive manipulate a Western Blot, which also can determine and differenti- ate antibodies against HIV-2. In some assays, a synthetic peptide is adapted to on HIV-2 screening. In example of a reactive HIV-2 group, this consequence should be confirmed past an HIV-2- associated with Western Spot.
The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and nortriptyline both include expressive anticholinergic side effects purchase albuterol without prescription asthmatic bronchitis que. The portion important for reducing neuropathic despair is in the anyhow sphere as payment treating recess and multitudinous patients can not suffer these dosages discount albuterol online american express asthma symptoms explained. How on earth safe 100mcg albuterol asthma x ray, lower dosages have planned proved insufficient in DSSP order pepcid 20mg otc. We use this spokesman with good success rates order duphaston 10 mg fast delivery, although clinical trials benefit of its detest in HIV-associated neuropathy are lacking. The antidepressant dulox- etine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, has been approved for the treat- ment of afflictive diabetic neuropathy. In our experience it is also useful in reducing spasm in DSSP and toxic neuropathy in HIV+ patients. The anticonvulsant carba- mazepine is a great extent hardened for the treatment of neuropathic disquiet. Anyway, it induces some enzymes of the CYP450 arrangement and interferes significantly with ADROITNESS. A high-concentration capsaicin patch has recently been shown to be gear in the treatment of vexation in DSSP patients (Mou 2013). The up settle is now available in Europe and in US, where it is OTC. The responsiveness varies considerably from unwavering to invalid, but the somewhat ponderous application is good a make an effort. In two trials smoked cannabis has proven effectual against neuropathic hurt in DSSP (Abrams 2007, Ellis 2009). Oral cannabi- noids own not been tested besides in achy HIV neuropathy. Decide Table 6 Medication-related toxic Withdrawal of the neurotoxic agents, if conceivable. CMV-infection Lymphomatous meningitis Starting or adjusting ART together with intrathecal methotrexate (intraventricular shunt or lumbar flat tyre) 12 15 mg 2 x/weekly until CSF is unencumbered of venomous cells, afterward 1 x/week in support of 4 weeks and afterward 1 x/month plus 15 mg oral folinate after each injection addition systemic treatment of lymphoma (make out chapter on Virulent Lymphoma) Polyradiculitis apposite to infection Take up tuberculosis (perceive chapter on OIs) with M. If a impetuous remedy of symptoms is certain, treatment should be started with motion 4 agents and a ineffective measure step 3 soporific should simultaneously be started with gradual escalation. The slower the escalation the greater the plausibility of reaching an effectual dosage. Authoritative opioids may be toughened to bring off moderate or dictatorial nuisance if a slow portion esca- lation of an antidepressant or anticonvulsant is not practicable and an adjacent anal- gesic potency is desired. Even in cases of substituted or non-substituted benumb calumniate, opioids can be euphemistic pre-owned (Breitbart 1997). Again, the dosage of methadone purely needs to be pretty increased for a enough analgesic effect. Myopathy Myopathies take place in 1 2% of all HIV+ patients. Postpone 7: Most high-level myopathies in HIV infection Essential HIV-associated Subsidiary Polymyositis AZT myopathy Nemaline (scourge body) myopathy Vasculitic myopathy Vacuolar myopathy Lymphomatous muscle infiltration Counting assemblage myositis Transmissible myositis Medication-related toxic rhabdomyolysis 646 Interdisciplinary Medicine Polymyositis mediated through cytotoxic T cells is the most joint HIV-associated myopathy. AZT-induced myopathy occurs exceptionally irregularly with the dosages tolerant of today (500 600 mg/day). Other agents such as ddI, cotrimoxazole, pentamidine, sul- fadiazine, lipid-lowering drugs and the integrase inhibitor raltegravir (Zembower 2008) may almost never result in acute rhabdomyolysis with tetraparesis and decided eleva- tion of serum CK levels. Notably, PIs stimulate the serum concentration of statins, increas- ing the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (Hare 2002). Raltegravir causes rarely a hardened limb girdle myopathy with paresis and myalgia (Lee 2012). An eminent serum CK labour is time again observed during treatment with TDF, especially in patients with HBV/HCV coinfection. This is well-earned to a strain 2 macroenzyme creatine kinase (macro CK) and essential not steer to glimmer of ischemic magnanimity or of burly plague. The accumulation of this liver-derived isoenzyme seems to be the result of an insufficient macro CK-2 permission competence mediated by TDF (Schmid 2005). Clinical features Myopathy in HIV infection most often presents with exercise-induced myalgia of prox- imal muscles followed nearby slowly growing, symmetric proclivity and atrophy of proximal muscles. Limb girdle muscles are most commonly affected, but distal muscles and muscles of the foot-locker, neck, standing or throat may also be fake. Diagnosis Myalgia, fatigue and grand serum CK levels are time again initiate in HIV infection. Some of the antiretroviral substances, generally AZT, nevirapine and maraviroc, may basis myalgia. But these unspecific symptoms and signs on their own do not permit the diagnosis of myopathy. The diagnosis of most likely myopathy requires impotence, muscle atrophy or myopathic features demonstrated by electromyography. A muscle biopsy confirms the diagnosis and may deliver some additional clues to the classifica- tion and pathogenesis of the muscle disease. Treatment Moderate myalgia may respond to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Prednisone (100 mg habitually in return 3 4 weeks, subsequent tapering) or intravenous immunoglobulin (0. The treatment of AZT myopathy is ces- sation of the medication. If symptoms persist beyond 4-6 weeks, prednisone as described upstairs may be effectual. References Abrams DI, Jay CA, Shade SB, Vizoso H, et al. Cannabis in sore HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a ran- domized placebo-controlled ass. Neurology 2007, 68:515 Banerjee S, McCutchan JA, ANces BA et al. Hypertriglyreidemia in conglomerate antiretroviral-treated HIV-posi- tive individuals: potential bump on HIV sensory polyneuropathy. AIDS 2011; 25: F1-F6 Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Passik S, et al. A contrasting of pang report and adequacy of analgesic analysis in ambu- latory AIDS patients with and without a biography of agency maltreatment. Lactate concentrations set apart between nucleoside neuropathy and HIV neuropa- thy. Humane immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors and risk for periph- eral neuropathy.
Preferably order genuine albuterol online asthma 2015 movie soundtrack, cats should be vigorous and older than united year; and scratches should be avoided cheap albuterol 100mcg without prescription asthma 50 lung capacity. Bacillary angiomatosis: a newly characterized generic albuterol 100 mcg visa asthma symptoms 8 month old, pseudoneoplastic discount 10mg maxolon free shipping, infectious order pirfenex 200mg without prescription, cutaneous vascular derangement. Molecular epidemiology of bartonella infections in patients with bacil- lary angiomatosis-peliosis. Acceptance of Bartonella infection among hiv-infected patients with fever. LeBoit PE, Berger TG, Egbert BM, Beckstead JH, Yen TSB, Stoler MH. Bacillary angiomatosis: the histopathology and differential diagnosis of a pseudoneoplastic infection in patients with HIV infirmity. Komplett im Plettenberg A, Lorenzen T, Burtsche BT, et al. Bacillary angiomatosis in HIV-infected patients an epidemiologi- cal and clinical over. Stoler MH, Bonfiglio TA, Steigbigel RB, et al: An atypical subcutaneous infection associated with AIDS. Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic mold, start mainly in wettish sully and without a capsule despite its name. The Southern and Midwestern of regions of the US as nicely as Dominant America and Africa are endemic areas. Drawn in the HAART generation, morbidity and mortality apropos to histoplasmosis remains a supporters heatlh fine kettle of fish in low-income and high-income countries (Review: Adenis 2014). In HIV patients with impaired absolution (85% take less than 100 CD4 T cells/Вµl), infection leads to an pointed, life- inauspicious condition with dry cough, fever, dyspnea and malaise (Gutierrez 2005, Mora 2008). Miliary TB and PCP are important differential diagnoses. Disseminated courses of disorder may also crop up, in which the fungus can be detected in bone marrow or on liver biopsy (Albrecht 1994). Hepatosplenomegaly is common, occurring in bordering on 90% of the patients (Mora 2008). Histoplasmosis is an AIDS-defining malady whose pathogen like that of cryptococcal antigen can be reliably detected in the blood with an antigen examine. Laboratory eval- uations ordinarily wallowin significantly pre-eminent LDH and alkaline phosphatase as well as transaminases. Amphotericin B should be inclined as initial treatment. Liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg day after day for 14 days) is not only less toxic, but under any circumstances also more junk (Johnson 2002). In milder cases, itraconazole (200 mg BID or TID) is effective, and can also be adapted to as a unessential prophylaxis. It is significantly more efficient than fluconazole (Wheat 2002), but is associated with a high risk of interactions, partic- ularly with ritonavir, but also with efavirenz (Crommentuyn 2004, Andrade 2009, Hills-Nieminen 2009). In such cases a modification of the doses is often certain. With application to other OIs, secondary prophylaxis in place of histoplasmosis can be discon- tinued if protected reconstitution is sufficient (Goldman 2004). Ritual of CRAFT and the consequent after immune reconstitution may reveal undiagnosed latent disseminated histoplasmosis (Nacher 2006). Opportunistic Infections (OIs) 405 References Adenis AA, Aznar C2, CouppiГ© P. Histoplasmosis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Parade of Further Developments and Remaining Gaps. Andrade RA, Evans RT, Hamill RJ, Zerai T, Giordano TP. Clinical assertion of interaction between itraconazole and nonnucleoside turn topsy-turvy transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected patients with disseminated histoplasmosis. Antonello VS, Zaltron VF, Vial M, Oliveira FM, Severo LC. Oropharyngeal histoplasmosis: report of eleven cases and evaluate of the brochures. Security of discontinuation of sustentation psychotherapy in place of disseminated histoplasmosis after immunologic answer to antiretroviral treatment. Disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS in panama: a study of 104 cases. Drug-drug interaction between itraconazole and the pro- annoy inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir. Protection and efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B compared with con- ventional amphotericin B for induction remedial programme of histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. Disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Increased prevalence of disseminated histoplasmosis following HAART ini- tiation. Verbose ulcerations due to disseminated histoplasmosis in a submissive with HIV. Antigen room during treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis with itraconazole versus fluconazole in patients with AIDS. Diagnosis and conduct of main fearful group histoplasmosis. Isosporiasis Isospora belli is an ubiquitous intestinal hyaena. While rare in Europe, it is a outlet of serious apply to in the developing sphere, specifically in the tropics and subtropics (Lagrange-Xelot 2008). In India Isospora belli was the most frequent diarrhea infection after cryptosporidiosis in HIV+ patients (Kulkarni 2009). Correspond to to cryptosporidio- sis, this microbe may originator epidemic-type outbreaks in immunocompetent hosts. Patients suffer at a least with enteritis-like complaints and occasionally, also familiarity vastly punitive pallid diarrhea, abdominal pain, cramps and nausea. In immunocompromised patients, chronic diarrhea and malnutrition may become manifest (Go over again: Goodgame 1996). Median CD4 T stall regard in patients with Isoporiasis is 150, marginally higher than in cases of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidia. Inveterate isosporiasis with diarrhea eternal for the sake of more than four weeks is AIDS-defining. Detection of the rather large oocysts is tenable via typical stool sampling because parasites, as well as in acid-fast stains. Blood tests inveterately give vent to eosinophilia (Certad 2003). Treatment is co-trimoxazole (960 mg every day after one week).